Biographical Information on Ibn Rushd
Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd (Averroes)

1126 (520 After the Hegira, according to the Islamic Calendar) born in Cordova, Spain

He studied law and medicine.

1169 (565 AH) he was appointed a judge in Sevilla; he also translated Aristotle's book de Anima (Of the Soul) during this year.

1171 Ibn Rushd was transferred to Cordova, where he held the position of a judge (Qaadi) for ten years. During that time, he wrote commentaries and interpretations on the works of Aristotle, among others on Metaphysics, and on Plato's Politeia.

1182 (578 AH) he was called to Marrakesh to work as a physician for the Caliph there, but he was soon transferred back to Cordova with the title of Great Qaadi (Chief Judge).

Ibn Rushd fell out of favor with the Caliph due to the opposition that theologians had raised against his writings. He was accused of heresy, interrogated and banned to Lucena, close to Cordova. At the same time, the Caliph ordered the books of the philosopher to be burnt, with the exception of his works on Medicine, Arithmetics and Elementary Astronomy (around 1195). Somewhat later the Caliph revoked the banishment and called Ibn Rushd back to Marrakesh. The works of Ibn Rushd also aroused admiration in Europe, even among those theologians who saw a danger for religious faith in his writings. In the XIIIth century, Ibn Rushd was condemned by bishops from Paris, Oxford and Canterbury for reasons similar to those that had caused his condemnation by the orthodox Muslims in Spain.

On December 10, 1198 (Safar 9, 595 AH) Ibn Rushd died in Marrakesh.

Further information on Ibn Rushd can be found at the following internet addresses:    and